Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison

Overview

This document analyses expenditure and outputs in the Irish health system and compares Ireland to other OECD countries. In viewing cross country comparisons of health data, it is important to take into account different age demographics as older populations, in general, require more expenditure on health care. There are significant differences in age demographics across OECD countries, with Ireland having one of the youngest populations. As such, we use a simple demographic adjustment to make the cross country data more comparable.
Overview of Health Expenditure in Ireland

Total health care expenditure in Ireland is split into two areas:

  1. Public health spending which is financed by taxation (including PRSI)
  2. Private health spending which includes payments to private health insurers as well as out of pocket expenses such as payments for GP visits.

Public expenditure on health accounts for the vast majority of total health care spending in Ireland. Over the period 2002-2009, public health spending made up, on average, 76.5 percent of total health expenditure . Figure 1 below shows the trend in nominal public and private health expenditure from 2002-2011.


 

Private Expenditure Data Goes Up To 2009

Age Demographics

Ireland has the sixth youngest population out of the 34 OECD countries as measured by the proportion of over 65′s.

  • In Ireland, 11.1% of the population is over 65 compared to the OECD average of 14.9%.
  • Japan has the highest proportion of over 65′s at 22.7 percent.
  • Germany and Italy are the two oldest countries in Europe with over 65′s making up 20.5% and 20.4% of their populations respectively.

The age demographic adjustment involves normalizing each country’s proportion of over 65′s to the OECD average of 14.9%. The adjustment factor is obtained by dividing the OECD average by the individual country’s proportion. This number is then multiplied by the expenditure and output data to give the demographically adjusted figure. For example, the adjustment factor in Ireland equals 1.34 (see table 1 below). If, for example, we want to adjust total public health spending as a percentage of GNP, we multiply the unadjusted figure of 7.7 by the adjustment factor of 1.34. This gives an adjusted figure of 10.4 percent (see table 2).

The demographic adjustment is simplistic as it assumes that health spending in each country increases at the same rate as the proportion of over 65′s increases. Nonetheless it is useful in making the data more comparable.

Table 1: Proportion of Over 65′s in Population

Country Proportion of Over 65′s Demographic Adjustment Factor Rank
(Oldest Populations)
Japan 22.7 0.66 1
Germany 20.5 0.73 2
Italy 20.4 0.73 3
Greece 18.8 0.79 4
Sweden 17.9 0.83 5
Portugal 17.8 0.84 6
Austria 17.5 0.85 7
Switzerland 17.2 0.87 8
Belgium 17.1 0.87 9
Estonia 17 0.88 10
Finland 16.9 0.88 11
France 16.7 0.89 12
Spain 16.7 0.89 13
Hungary 16.5 0.9 14
Slovenia 16.2 0.92 15
Denmark 16.1 0.93 16
United Kingdom 15.8 0.94 17
Netherlands 15.2 0.98 18
Czech Republic 15 0.99 19
Norway 14.8 1.01 20
Luxembourg 14 1.06 21
Canada 13.9 1.07 22
Poland 13.5 1.1 23
Australia 13.3 1.12 24
United States 13 1.15 25
New Zealand 12.8 1.16 26
Slovak Republic 12.2 1.22 27
Iceland 11.8 1.26 28
Ireland 11.1 1.34 29
Korea 10.7 1.39 30
Israel 9.8 1.52 31
Chile 8.8 1.69 32
Turkey 7.6 1.96 33
Mexico 5.8 2.57 34
OECD Average 14.9

Source: OECD Health at a Glance, 2011
Notes: The denominator for Ireland is GNP. Demographic calculations are the author’s.

Health Expenditure In The OECD

Table 2 below shows public health spending as a percentage of GDP for the 34 OECD countries. Note that for Ireland, we use GNP as the denominator[1].

Country Public Health Exp Unadjusted (%GDP) Rank (Unadjusted) Adjusted Public Health Expenditure (%GDP) Rank (Adjusted)
Ireland 7.7 13 10.4 1
Netherlands 10.3 1 10.1 2
New Zealand 8.4 6 9.8 3
United States 8.5 5 9.7 4
Iceland 7.5 15 9.4 5
Denmark 9.5 2 8.7 6
Turkey 4.5 31 8.7 7
Canada 8.1 8 8.7 8
Norway 8 9 8.1 9
France 8.9 3 8 10
Mexico 2.9 34 7.5 11
United Kingdom 8 10 7.5 12
Israel 4.8 30 7.3 13
Austria 8.4 7 7.1 14
Slovak Republic 5.8 26 7.1 15
Luxembourg 6.6 20 7.1 16
Australia 6.2 24 7 17
Belgium 7.9 11 6.9 18
Chile 3.9 33 6.5 19
Germany 8.9 4 6.5 20
Sweden 7.8 12 6.5 21
Switzerland 7.4 16 6.4 22
Spain 7.1 18 6.3 23
Czech Republic 6.3 23 6.2 24
Slovenia 6.6 22 6 25
Portugal 7 19 5.9 26
Finland 6.6 21 5.8 27
Korea 4.1 32 5.8 28
Poland 5 28 5.5 29
Italy 7.4 17 5.4 30
Japan 7.7 14 5 31
Greece 6.1 25 4.8 32
Hungary 5.1 27 4.6 33
Estonia 5 29 4.4 34

 


[1] For a discussion on the benefits of using GNP instead of GDP for Ireland see www.publicpolicy.ie/wp-content/uploads/International-Comparisons-of-Taxation-and-Public-Spending-and-GNP-GDP.pdf

The unadjusted data ranks Ireland 13th out of 34 in terms of public health spending. After the demographic adjustment is carried out, Ireland moves up the rankings significantly ending up in first place. Tables 3 and 4 provide details on private health spending and total health spending respectively. We see that Ireland’s adjusted total health expenditure is the third highest out of the 34 OECD countries.

Table 3: Private Health Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP for OECD Countries

Country Private Health Exp Unadjusted (%GDP) Private Health Exp % GDP Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Private Health Expenditure (%GDP) Adjusted Rank
United States 9.1 1 10.4 1
Mexico 3.3 8 8.4 2
Chile 4.1 2 7 3
Israel 3.1 10 4.7 4
Ireland 3.4 6 4.5 5
Korea 3 11 4.1 6
Slovak Republic 3.2 9 3.9 7
Canada 3.3 7 3.5 8
Switzerland 4 4 3.4 9
Greece 4.1 3 3.3 10
Turkey 1.6 29 3.2 11
Australia 2.9 12 3.2 12
Portugal 3.7 5 3.1 13
Hungary 2.7 13 2.5 14
France 2.7 15 2.4 15
Iceland 1.8 25 2.3 16
Spain 2.5 18 2.3 17
Slovenia 2.4 19 2.3 18
Belgium 2.6 17 2.2 19
Austria 2.6 16 2.2 20
Poland 2 21 2.2 21
Finland 2.3 20 2 22
New Zealand 1.7 27 2 23
Germany 2.7 14 2 24
Netherlands 1.7 26 1.7 25
Denmark 1.7 28 1.5 26
United Kingdom 1.6 30 1.5 27
Sweden 1.8 24 1.5 28
Italy 1.9 22 1.4 29
Norway 1.4 31 1.4 30
Luxembourg 1.3 33 1.3 31
Japan 1.9 23 1.2 32
Czech Republic 1.2 34 1.2 33
Estonia 1.3 32 1.2 34

Source: OECD Health Data 2012. Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table 4: Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP

Country Total Unadjusted Health Expenditure (%GDP) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Health Expenditure (%GDP) Adjusted Rank
United States 17.6 1 20.2 1
Mexico 6.2 33 15.9 2
Ireland 11.1 7 14.9 3
Chile 8 25 13.5 4
Canada 11.4 5 12.2 5
Israel 7.9 26 12 6
Turkey 6.1 34 12 7
Netherlands 12 2 11.8 8
New Zealand 10.1 13 11.8 9
Iceland 9.3 19 11.7 10
Slovak Republic 9 22 11 11
France 11.6 3 10.3 12
Denmark 11.1 8 10.3 13
Australia 9.1 21 10.2 14
Korea 7.1 30 9.9 15
Switzerland 11.4 6 9.9 16
Norway 9.4 18 9.5 17
Austria 11 9 9.4 18
Belgium 10.5 11 9.1 19
United Kingdom 9.6 14 9.1 20
Portugal 10.7 10 9 21
Spain 9.6 15 8.6 22
Germany 11.6 4 8.4 23
Luxembourg 7.9 27 8.4 24
Slovenia 9 23 8.3 25
Greece 10.2 12 8.1 26
Sweden 9.6 16 8 27
Finland 8.9 24 7.8 28
Poland 7 31 7.7 29
Czech Republic 7.5 29 7.5 30
Hungary 7.8 28 7 31
Italy 9.3 20 6.8 32
Japan 9.5 17 6.2 33
Estonia 6.3 32 5.5 34

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations. The denominator for Ireland is GNP.

Outputs & Availability Of Medical Resources

We can attempt to gauge whether value for money is being achieved in the health system, by looking at how much a country spends on health care compared to its output and availability of medical resources (as in Rovere and Skinner, 2012).

We have seen that Ireland’s total adjusted health expenditure is the third highest in the OECD. We now examine medical resources to see if this high level of spending corresponds with similarly high levels of output. Table 5 summarises the performance of the Irish health system using ten key areas of medical output. All rankings in table 5 are adjusted for age demographics. Detailed tables on each area of output are given in the appendix.

 

  • Ireland’s highest rank in terms of medical output is the number of nurses per one thousand of the population, ranking second out of 34 countries. However, caution is called for when comparing the number of nurses across the OECD as there are three different definitions used. For example, in Ireland, the data refers to the number of professionally active nurses whereas in some other countries the data refers either to practicing nurses only or nurses who are licensed to practice (see table A1 of the appendix).
  • Ireland also ranks well in terms of the number of physicians (5th out of 34), the availability of psychiatric beds (6th out of 33) and the number of MRI units (7th out of 27).

At first glance, the data suggests that Ireland has a low number of hospital beds (19th out of 34) and acute care beds (17th out of 33). But the thrust of health policy in Ireland is focused towards developing primary care services in the community which will allow people to receive care outside the hospital. As of June 2012, there were 485 primary care teams in operation throughout the country, with a view to increasing this number to 485 by the end of 2012 . These primary care teams are teams of health professionals who work together to provide care in the community. The adjusted data also shows that the number of hospital beds available in Ireland is on par with the Netherlands which is considered to be one of the highest performing health systems in Europe.

As shown in table 5, the two areas where Ireland ranks lowest are coronary bypasses (22nd out of 31) and knee replacements (24th out of 28).

Table 5: Ireland’s Rank On Expenditure Compared To Its Rank On Indicators Of Output Of Medical Resources Among OECD Countries

Expenditure / Medical Output Indicators Adjusted Rank
Total Health Spending (% GDP) 3 (out of 34)
Indicators of Output and Availability of Medical Resources
Number of Nurses (per 1,000 Population) 2 (out of 34)
Physicians (per 1,000 Population) 5 (out of 34)
Psychiatric Beds (per 1,000 Population) 6 (out of 33)
MRI Units (per million Population) 7 (out of 27)
CT Scanners (per million Population) 14 (out of 32)
Acute Care Beds (per 1,000 Population) 17 (out of 33)
Hip Replacement (per 100,000 Population) 19 (out of 32)
Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population) 19 (out of 34)
Coronary Bypass (per 100,000 Population) 22 (out of 31)
Knee Replacement (per 100,000 Population) 24 (out of 28)

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.

Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations. The denominator for Ireland is GNP.

References

  • Bjornberg, Arne. 2012. “Euro Health Consumer Index 2012″, Health Consumer Powerhouse
  • European Observatory on Health Systems. 2009. “Ireland Health System Review”. Health Systems in Transition (11) 4.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2011. “Health at a Glance 2011. OECD Indicators
  • Rovere, Mark and Brett J. Skinner. 2012. “Value for Money from Health Insurance Systems in Canada and the OECD”, Fraser Institute
  • Skinner, Brett J. 2009. “Canadian Health Policy Failures: What’s Wrong? Who Gets Hurt? Why Nothing Changes”, Fraser Institute

Appendix

Table A1: Nurses per 1,000 Population

Country Nurses per 1000 population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Nurses per 1000 Population Adjusted Rank
Iceland 1 14.5 5 18.4 1
Ireland2 13.1 7 17.5 2
Luxembourg 1 16.3 1 17.4 3
Norway 1 14.4 6 14.5 4
Denmark 1 15.4 3 14.3 5
Switzerland 1 16 2 13.9 6
Belgium 3 15.1 4 13.1 7
United States 2 11 10 12.6 8
New Zealand 1 10 13 11.7 9
Australia 1 10.1 12 11.3 10
Canada 1 9.3 16 10 11
Sweden 1 11 9 9.2 12
United Kingdom 1 9.6 14 9.1 13
Finland 1 9.6 15 8.4 14
Netherlands 1 8.4 18 8.2 15
Germany 1 11.3 8 8.2 16
Czech Republic 1 8.1 20 8 17
France 2 8.5 17 7.5 18
Slovenia 1 8.2 19 7.5 19
Slovak Republic 2 6 25 7.4 20
Israel 1 4.8 29 7.2 21
Japan 1 10.1 11 6.6 22
Austria 1 7.7 21 6.5 23
Korea 1 4.6 30 6.4 24
Mexico 1 2.5 32 6.4 25
Poland 1 5.3 27 5.8 26
Hungary 1 6.2 23 5.6 27
Estonia 1 6.1 24 5.4 28
Portugal 2 5.7 26 4.7 29
Italy 3 6.3 22 4.6 30
Spain 1 4.9 28 4.4 31
Turkey 2 1.6 33 3.1 32
Greece 2 3.3 31 2.6 33
Chile 3 1.5 34 2.6 34
  1. Data refer to practising nurses. Practising nurses are defined as those providing care directly to patients.
  2. Data refer to professionally active nurses. They include practising nurses plus other nurses working in the health sector as managers, educators, researchers, etc. (adding another 5-10% of nurses).
  3. Data refer to all nurses who are licensed to practice.
  4. Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A2: Physicians per 1,000 Population

Country Physicians per 1000 Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Physicians per 1000 Population Adjusted Rank
Israel 1 3.5 12 5.3 1
Mexico 1 2 31 5.2 2
Greece 2 6.1 1 4.9 3
Iceland 1 3.6 10 4.5 4
Ireland2 3.1 18 4.2 5
Norway 1 4.1 3 4.1 6
Slovak Republic 2 3.3 14 4.1 7
Austria 1 4.8 2 4.1 8
Czech Republic 1 3.6 11 3.6 9
Australia 1 3.1 19 3.5 10
Spain 1 3.8 7 3.4 11
Turkey 2 1.7 33 3.3 12
Switzerland 1 3.8 5 3.3 13
Denmark 1 3.5 13 3.2 14
Portugal 3 3.8 4 3.2 15
Sweden 1 3.8 6 3.2 16
New Zealand 1 2.6 25 3 17
Luxembourg 1 2.8 23 2.9 18
France 2 3.3 16 2.9 19
Finland 2 3.3 15 2.9 20
Netherlands 2 2.9 21 2.9 21
Estonia 1 3.2 17 2.8 22
United States 1 2.4 26 2.8 23
Korea 1 2 32 2.8 24
Germany 1 3.7 8 2.7 25
Italy 1 3.7 9 2.7 26
Hungary 1 2.9 22 2.6 27
United Kingdom 1 2.7 24 2.6 28
Belgium 1 2.9 20 2.5 29
Canada 2 2.4 28 2.5 30
Chile 3 1.4 34 2.4 31
Poland 1 2.2 30 2.4 32
Slovenia 1 2.4 27 2.2 33
Japan 1 2.2 29 1.5 34

Source: OECD Health Data 2012

  1. Data refer to practising physicians. Practising physicians are defined as those providing care directly to patients.
  2. Data refer to professionally active physicians. They include practising physicians plus other physicians working in the health sector as managers, educators, researchers, etc. (adding another 5-10% of doctors).
  3. Data refer to all physicians who are licensed to practice.
  4. Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A3: Psychiatric Care Beds Per 1,000 Population

Country Psychiatric Care Beds per 1000 (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Psychiatric Care Beds per 1000 Population Adjusted Rank
Japan 2.7 1 1.8 1
Belgium 1.8 2 1.5 2
Netherlands 1.4 3 1.4 3
Korea 0.9 6 1.3 4
Czech Republic 1 4 1 5
Ireland 0.7 14 1 6
Slovak Republic 0.8 11 1 7
Luxembourg 0.9 8 0.9 8
Switzerland 1 5 0.8 9
Norway 0.8 9 0.8 10
France 0.9 7 0.8 11
Poland 0.6 16 0.7 12
Israel 0.5 23 0.7 13
Austria 0.8 12 0.7 14
Finland 0.8 13 0.7 15
Greece 0.8 10 0.6 16
Slovenia 0.7 15 0.6 17
Denmark 0.6 18 0.5 18
United Kingdom 0.5 20 0.5 19
Portugal 0.6 17 0.5 20
Estonia 0.5 19 0.5 21
Canada 0.4 25 0.4 22
Australia 0.4 26 0.4 23
Sweden 0.5 22 0.4 24
Spain 0.4 24 0.4 25
Germany 0.5 21 0.4 26
Hungary 0.3 27 0.3 27
Chile 0.2 30 0.3 28
United States 0.3 28 0.3 29
New Zealand 0.2 29 0.3 30
Turkey 0.1 32 0.1 31
Mexico 0 33 0.1 32
Italy 0.1 31 0.1 33

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A4: MRI Units Per Million Population

Country MRI Units per Million Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted MRI Units per Million Population Adjusted Rank
United States 31.6 2 36.2 1
Japan 43.1 1 28.3 2
Iceland 22 5 27.8 3
Korea 19.9 6 27.8 4
Turkey 9.5 18 18.7 5
Greece 22.6 3 17.9 6
Ireland 12.5 12 16.8 7
Finland 18.7 7 16.4 8
Italy 22.4 4 16.3 9
Austria 18.6 8 15.8 10
Switzerland 17.8 9 15.4 11
Luxembourg 13.8 11 14.7 12
Denmark 15.4 10 14.2 13
New Zealand 10.5 16 12.3 14
Netherlands 12.2 13 12 15
Spain 10.7 14 9.5 16
Belgium 10.7 15 9.3 17
Canada 8.2 20 8.8 18
Slovak Republic 6.8 23 8.3 19
Portugal 9.2 19 7.7 20
Germany 10.3 17 7.5 21
Estonia 8.2 21 7.2 22
Chile 4.1 29 7 23
Australia 5.6 26 6.3 24
Czech Republic 6.3 24 6.2 25
France 7 22 6.2 26
United Kingdom 5.9 25 5.5 27
Poland 4.7 27 5.2 28
Mexico 2 32 5 29
Slovenia 4.4 28 4.1 30
Israel 2 31 3 31
Hungary 3 30 2.7 32

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A5: CT Scanners Per Million Population

Country CT Scanners per Million Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted CT Scanners per Million Population Adjusted Rank
Japan 97.3 1 63.8 1
Korea 35.3 5 49.1 2
Australia 42.8 2 48 3
Iceland 37.7 4 47.7 4
United States 40.7 3 46.6 5
Switzerland 32.6 7 28.2 6
Luxembourg 25.6 12 27.3 7
Greece 34.3 6 27.2 8
Denmark 27.6 10 25.5 9
Austria 29.8 9 25.4 10
Turkey 12.4 25 24.3 11
Italy 31.6 8 23.1 12
Portugal 27.4 11 22.9 13
Ireland 15.6 16 21 14
Finland 21.1 13 18.6 15
New Zealand 15.6 17 18.1 16
Chile 10.2 28 17.3 17
Slovak Republic 13.8 22 16.9 18
Poland 14.3 20 15.8 19
Canada 14.2 21 15.2 20
Czech Republic 14.5 19 14.4 21
Israel 9.2 29 14 22
Estonia 15.7 15 13.7 23
Spain 15 18 13.3 24
Germany 17.7 14 12.9 25
Mexico 4.8 32 12.4 26
Netherlands 12.3 26 12.1 27
Slovenia 12.7 24 11.7 28
Belgium 13.2 23 11.5 29
France 11.8 27 10.5 30
United Kingdom 8.2 30 7.7 31
Hungary 7.3 31 6.6 32

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A6: Acute Care Beds Per 1,000 Population

Country Acute Care Beds per 1000 Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Acute Care Beds per 1000 Population Adjusted Rank
Korea 5.5 3 7.7 1
Slovak Republic 4.7 6 5.8 2
Japan 8.1 1 5.3 3
Czech Republic 4.9 5 4.8 4
Poland 4.4 7 4.8 5
Turkey 2.4 23 4.8 6
Austria 5.5 4 4.7 7
Luxembourg 4.2 8 4.4 8
Germany 5.7 2 4.1 9
Mexico 1.6 33 4.1 10
Australia 3.4 15 3.8 11
Hungary 4.1 9 3.7 12
Belgium 4.1 10 3.6 13
Slovenia 3.7 12 3.4 14
Greece 4.1 11 3.2 15
France 3.5 14 3.1 16
Ireland 2.3 26 3.1 17
Estonia 3.5 13 3 18
Chile 1.8 30 3 19
United States 2.6 21 3 20
Netherlands 3 17 3 21
Israel 1.9 29 2.9 22
Switzerland 3.1 16 2.7 23
Denmark 2.9 18 2.7 24
Norway 2.4 24 2.4 25
New Zealand 2 28 2.3 26
Portugal 2.8 20 2.3 27
United Kingdom 2.4 25 2.2 28
Spain 2.5 22 2.2 29
Italy 2.8 19 2.1 30
Canada 1.7 32 1.9 31
Sweden 2 27 1.7 32
Finland 1.8 31 1.6 33

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A7: Hip Replacements Per 100,000 Population

Country Hip Replacements per 100,000 Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Hip Replacements per 100,000 Population Adjusted Rank
Switzerland 286.7 2 248.4 1
Luxembourg 221.6 8 235.8 2
Norway 232 5 233.6 3
Iceland 172.6 15 217.9 4
Germany 295.7 1 214.9 5
United States 183.9 14 210.8 6
Belgium 240 3 209.1 7
Netherlands 213.1 10 208.9 8
Denmark 221.8 7 205.3 9
Austria 237.8 4 202.5 10
France 223.8 6 199.7 11
United Kingdom 193.6 12 182.6 12
Slovenia 193.7 11 178.2 13
Sweden 214 9 178.1 14
New Zealand 148.5 19 172.9 15
Australia 154.3 17 172.9 16
Finland 188.2 13 165.9 17
Czech Republic 166.4 16 165.3 18
Ireland 117.1 22 157.2 19
Canada 122.5 21 131.3 20
Greece 139.8 20 110.8 21
Italy 150 18 109.6 22
Slovak Republic 78.1 27 95.4 23
Hungary 99.4 23 89.8 24
Spain 92.6 24 82.6 25
Israel 51.4 28 78.1 26
Estonia 87.6 26 76.8 27
Portugal 87.8 25 73.5 28
Poland 43.5 29 48 29
Chile 18.7 30 31.7 30
Korea 16.9 31 23.5 31
Mexico 7.5 32 19.3 32

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A8: Hospital Beds Per 1,000 Population

Country Hospital Beds per 1000 Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Hospital Beds per 1000 Population Adjusted Rank
Korea 8.8 2 12.2 1
Japan 13.6 1 8.9 2
Slovak Republic 6.4 10 7.8 3
Iceland 5.8 12 7.3 4
Poland 6.6 7 7.3 5
Czech Republic 7 6 7 6
Austria 7.6 4 6.5 7
Hungary 7.2 5 6.5 8
Germany 8.3 3 6 9
France 6.4 9 5.7 10
Luxembourg 5.4 13 5.7 11
Belgium 6.4 8 5.6 12
Finland 5.9 11 5.2 13
Israel 3.3 23 5 14
Turkey 2.5 32 4.9 15
Estonia 5.3 14 4.7 16
Netherlands 4.7 17 4.6 17
Switzerland 5 15 4.3 18
Ireland 3.1 27 4.2 19
Mexico 1.6 34 4.2 20
Slovenia 4.6 18 4.2 21
Australia 3.7 19 4.2 22
Greece 4.9 16 3.8 23
United States 3.1 28 3.5 24
Chile 2 33 3.5 25
Canada 3.2 25 3.4 26
Norway 3.3 24 3.3 27
Denmark 3.5 21 3.2 28
New Zealand 2.7 30 3.2 29
Spain 3.2 26 2.8 30
Portugal 3.4 22 2.8 31
United Kingdom 3 29 2.8 32
Italy 3.5 20 2.6 33
Sweden 2.7 31 2.3 34

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A9: Coronary Bypass Per 100,000 Population

Country Coronary Bypass per 100,000 Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Coronary Bypass per 100,000 Population Adjusted Rank
Belgium 131.4 1 114.5 1
United States 79.5 3 91.1 2
New Zealand 77 4 89.6 3
Germany 119.9 2 87.1 4
Australia 69.9 7 78.3 5
Iceland 59.2 10 74.8 6
Israel 47.3 17 71.9 7
Norway 70.2 6 70.7 8
Canada 63.4 9 68 9
Denmark 71.1 5 65.8 10
Slovenia 66 8 60.7 11
Luxembourg 54.4 13 57.9 12
Netherlands 58.4 11 57.2 13
Czech Republic 56.2 12 55.8 14
Estonia 53.3 14 46.7 15
Finland 52.9 15 46.6 16
Poland 38 21 41.9 17
Austria 47.6 16 40.5 18
United Kingdom 40.1 19 37.8 19
Sweden 45 18 37.5 20
Portugal 39.7 20 33.2 21
Ireland 23.5 27 31.5 22
Slovak Republic 24.9 26 30.4 23
Hungary 32.3 22 29.2 24
France 30.2 25 26.9 25
Switzerland 30.6 24 26.5 26
Italy 32 23 23.4 27
Chile 10.4 29 17.6 28
Spain 17.6 28 15.7 29
Korea 7.2 30 10 30
Mexico 3.3 31 8.5 31

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

Table A10: Knee Replacements Per 100,000 Population

Country Knee Replacements per 100,000 Population (Unadjusted) Unadjusted Rank Adjusted Knee Replacements per 100,000 Population Adjusted Rank
United States 212.5 2 243.6 1
Australia 157.9 9 176.9 2
Switzerland 200 3 173.3 3
Luxembourg 160.2 8 170.5 4
Iceland 131.6 12 166.2 5
Denmark 173.3 6 160.4 6
Austria 187.5 4 159.6 7
Finland 178 5 156.9 8
Germany 212.5 1 154.5 9
Canada 143.3 10 153.6 10
Belgium 167.7 7 146.1 11
Korea 97.8 20 136.2 12
United Kingdom 140.9 11 132.9 13
Netherlands 124.3 14 121.8 14
New Zealand 101.8 18 118.5 15
Czech Republic 111.1 16 110.4 16
France 118.8 15 106 17
Sweden 126.8 13 105.5 18
Spain 102.3 17 91.3 19
Slovenia 93 21 85.5 20
Norway 75.1 22 75.6 21
Italy 99.8 19 72.9 22
Israel 46.7 24 71 23
Ireland 41.8 26 56.1 24
Portugal 61.7 23 51.6 25
Hungary 45.2 25 40.8 26
Mexico 3.4 28 8.7 27
Chile 5.1 27 8.6 28

Source: OECD Health Data 2012.
Notes: Age demographic adjustments are author’s own calculations.

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